PGI: Basic Maneuvers, Level 2

This PGI is essentially a carry-on of Basic Maneuvers, Level 1, and supports the air instruction outline in Transport Canada’s Lesson Plan 3 found in the Flight Instructor Manual.  In this interpretation of the Transport Canada’s Lesson Plan 3, the student’s flying is to progress to pursuing the additional flight targets of power changes during straight and level flight, airspeed targets during climbs and descents, and specified angle of bank during turns.

Keep in mind—at this point—that it is unlikely that the above three skills can be taught in one PGI/training flight cycle, so be prepared to defer turns at specific angles of bank to the next PGI/training flight cycle (one strategy is combine turns at specific angles of bank with basic training in collision avoidance maneuver).

This PGI—Basic Maneuvers, Level 2—is best presented as a refinement of the Basic Maneuvers presented in the last flight (which were based on flying attitudes with just straight-tracking and altitude-holding).

In the Background Knowledge section, the yaw associated with power changes should be reviewed.  In the case of turns at specific angles of bank, the bank indications of the attitude indicator should be review.

In all cases, the PGI for Basic Maneuvers, Level 2 should be an emphasis on the “How” section.  In the case of power changes, the affects of a power-increase and power-decrease on straight and level flight performance are review, with a review of elementary yet essential corrective process of balancing power changes with changes in angle of attack (pitch).  Students should be ready to take cues from the indications of the altimeter as guidance for pitch inputs.  The power changes should oscillate at dramatic setting just above the slow flight power setting (say approximately above 2100 RPM in most cases), transitioning between 2150 and 2500 RPM.

In the case of climbing at specific airspeeds, this “How” section should review the basic climb sequence from the last lesson—Attitude, Power, Trim—and should simply now in include “Attitude, Airspeed, Power, Trim”.    This interpretation suggests the speed targets of 100, 90, and 80 MPH/KTS be used in both the climb and descent sequences, pursuing specific altitude targets.  It also suggests that power-off settings be used in the descent so that effects of airspeed on the point of zero-movement is emphasized—of course the need for acute control of pitch to maintain the speed targets is also emphasized for the student.

In the case of turns, the T-BAT sequence from this previous flight should be reviewed—Traffic, Bank, Altimeter, Traffic, etc.—should be refined to include a specific Attitude Indicator bank targets, for example, “Traffic, Bank (Attitude Indicator), Altimeter, Traffic, etc.

Collision-avoidance maneuver training stands alone and should be taught early in the training.  Students who have thus for been taught to treat the aircraft smoothly and gently, must now learn to pitch and roll aggressively by smoothly as a means of changing the aircrafts altitude and heading as quickly as safely able.  An interpretation is teach the pitching/rolling movement in slow motion first, having the student speed up the maneuver as a feel for the inputs is acquired.